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In the second century A.D., Claudio Tolomeo proposed a model of the Universe with the Earth in the center. In the model, the Earth remains stationary while the planets, the Moon and the Sun describe complicated orbits around it.
Apparently, Ptolemy was concerned that the model worked from a mathematical point of view, and not so much that it accurately described planetary motion. Although its inaccuracy was subsequently demonstrated, the Ptolemy model was accepted for several centuries.
The first and most famous work of Ptolemy, originally written in Greek, was translated into Arabic as al-Majisti (Magna work). In Europe, medieval Latin translations reproduced the title as Almagesti, and since then it is known simply as Almagesto.
In this work, Ptolemy proposed a geometric theory to explain mathematically the movements and apparent positions of the planets, the Sun and the Moon against a background of motionless stars. This work did not include any physical description of the objects in space.
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