Astronomy

What will the PRECISE time of the Summer Solstice 2020 be?

What will the PRECISE time of the Summer Solstice 2020 be?


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I'm trying to explain to my daughter that the Summer Solstice is not a day of the year, but an exact instant in time. My search shows that this will be about 21:43 or 21:44 UTC tonight. To make my point I searched for a more precise time. I figured I could find a time accurate to at least the second, or hopefully several places after the decimal , but I couldn't find anything.

Can anyone show me a source for the precise time of the Solstice to at least the second? To the millisecond? The microsecond?


TL;DR:

In a couple of weeks it might be possible to say precisely (within a second, perhaps a fraction of a second) when the summer solstice did occur. But until then, sub-minute estimates should be treated as fraudulent.


The reason you are seeing different times for when the summer solstice will occur is that different websites use different models of the orbits of the bodies that comprise the solar system and different models of the Earth's orientation in space.

It's very important to remember that "all models are wrong, but some are useful".

There are several issues with finding the exact time of when solstices occur. One is that the solstices are extrema of the Sun's declination. Without a model of derivatives, finding extrema (e.g., the solstices) mathematically is a much harder problem than is finding zero crossings (e.g., the equinoxes).

More importantly, a very precise prediction would require multiple very precise models. While many models of the orbits of the bodies in the solar system are very, very good, none are good enough to get the timing of the solstices down to the millisecond. Even more importantly, the tilt of the Earth's orientation in space with respect to its orbit about the Sun needs to be modeled. The best model, the IAU 2006/2000A precession-nutation model has over a thousand terms (1365 terms, to be precise).

And even then, "all models are wrong." The people at the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) know this very well. The IERS is the organization that is responsible for modeling time as measured by the Earth's rotation and for modeling how the Earth is oriented in space. There are some aspects of the Earth's orientation in space that are not quite predictable. The US Naval Observatory, one of the key members of the IERS, publishes daily updates of observed deviations from model predictions. It take a couple of weeks to fully digest measurements made by astronomers worldwide.


It is intrinsically hard to measure the exact time of solstice as, unlike the equinox, it occurs when the sun's declination is changing slowly. So, determining the exact time of solstice depends on models of nutation, etc.

timeanddate.com has a user-created countdown time that uses 21:43:40 UTC for the exact time of solstice. I'm a little sceptical, as they use 21:43 elsewhere on their site.


What is a solstice?

Meteorologists and astronomers measure Earth's seasons differently — it has to do with the solstices.

As the Earth rotates, half of the globe receives the sun's light while the other is bathed in shadow. But because Earth's axis tilts 23.5 degrees from the vertical, typically one hemisphere receives light for more time than the other, and therefore has a longer day. Twice a year, when the tilt is most extreme with respect to the sun, one hemisphere has its longest day of the year while the other has its longest night. This is called the solstice.


The summer solstice is one of the few days when visitors can get close to the stones. AndyRoland/iStock via Getty Images

People have long believed Stonehenge was the site of ancient druid solstice celebrations because of the way the Sun lines up with the stones on the winter and summer solstices. While there's no proven connection between Celtic solstice celebrations and the megalithic monument, these days, thousands of modern pagans gather at the landmark to watch the sunrise on the solstice.


Summer Solstice

Solstice comes from the Latin (sol, sun sistit, stands). For several days before and after each solstice, the sun appears to stand still in the sky?that is, its noontime elevation does not seem to change.

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Solstice, from the Latin for sun stands still, in astronomy, either of the two points on the ecliptic that lie midway between the equinoxes (separated from them by an angular distance of 90).

At the solstices the sun's apparent position on the celestial sphere reaches its greatest distance above or below the celestial equator, about 23 1/2 of arc. At the time of summer solstice, around June 20 or 21, the sun is directly overhead at noon at the Tropic of Cancer.

In the Northern Hemisphere the longest day and shortest night of the year occur on this date, marking the beginning of summer. At winter solstice, about December 22, the sun is overhead at noon at the Tropic of Capricorn this marks the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. For several days before and after each solstice the sun appears to stand still in the sky, i.e., its noontime elevation does not seem to change from day to day.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition Copyright 1993, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Inso Corporation. All rights reserved.


Aubrey Circle Ratio Numbers

So what is the relationship between the Aubrey Circle and the other two main circular structures at Stonehenge?

To appreciate their relationship, we must understand that the two inner circles at Stonehenge are based on the ratio numbers 3 and 11 and that these ratio numbers, when multiplied by 720, provide the diameters in miles of the Earth and Moon. The Earth’s ratio number is 11 x 720 = 7290 miles. The Moon’s is 3 x 720 = 2160.

Aubrey Circle’s diameter ratio number is 39. When multiplied by 720 the number is 28,080, which when divided by the Moon’s diameter of 2160 is 13:

The Ratio Geometry at Stonehenge

So the diameter, as a ratio number of Aubrey Circle, has the same number as the circuits the Moon makes in one year 56 (number of holes) x 13 = 364 days.

The average diameter of the Aubrey Circle is 280.8 feet, which is 100 th of the diameter 28,080.

The Earth’s ratio diameter is also directly related to the Aubrey circle by being the chord ratio length by counting across the centres of 5 of its post holes, which equals 11 (this is also shown in the diagram above).

Once the Earth’s diameter was established within Stonehenge’s inner structure, the other three phases of its construction, including the positions and diameters of all the other circular structures, were easily established with simple geometry and mathematics, as shown in this YouTube video. This is the same geometry that will be replicated in the skies over the locations where the eclipse occurs.

The Primes Connection

It is also noted that the sum of six consecutive primes 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13 + 17 adds to 56 which also include the numbers 3, 7 and 11. Interestingly, 39 shares the exact same prime numbers as 56 i.e. 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13 = 39.

Summer Solstice 2020 and the Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid also has the same 7 to 11 ratio built into its structure. The height of the pyramid is, for example, in a 7 to 11 ratio with its base: 481 feet to 756 feet.

It is remarkable that two hours later, at exactly 5:13 UT during the partial eclipse, there is to be yet another astronomical alignment, this time within the Great Pyramid:

Partial Eclipse of the Sun with the Moon Aligned to the Centre Line of the Great Pyramid

When the eclipsing Moon is directly above the apex of the Great Pyramid (see diagram above) and centred on the pyramid’s centre line, the Sun and Moon:

  • will be perfectly replicated to and aligned with the centres of the floors of the King (Sun) and Queen’s (Moon) chambers, as shown in the interior of the pyramid in the second diagram below
  • will replicate the exact ratio/position of the Sun and Moon
  • will form the Vesica Piscis along a common axis running from the centre line within the King’s Chamber floor down to the centre line of the Queen’s Chamber (see the red line below). This line will be parallel with the Galactic Equator, as seen above the Great Pyramid at that exact moment in time.

Sun and Moon within the Great Pyramid on 21 June 2020


The Solstice is an astronomical event that happens twice, once in summer and once in winter, each year when the Sun reaches its highest position in the sky as seen from the North or South Pole. During Solstices the tilt of the axis of the Earth (with respect to the Sun) is the maximum at 23° 26'.

Solstices occur on 20 th or 21 st June and 21 st or 22 nd December each year. During summer the day of the solstice is the longest day of the year and during winter the day of the solstice is the shortest day of the year.

During June it is Summer Solstice in the Northern hemisphere and Winter Solstice in the Southern hemisphere. In other words, on June Solstice it is summer time in the UK, the USA, Canada, Russia, India, and China and it is the longest day of the year while it is winter time in Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa and it is the shortest day of the year.

Similarly, during December it is Winter Solstice in the Northern hemisphere and Summer Solstice in the Southern hemisphere. In other words, during December Solstice it is winter time in the UK, the USA, Canada, Russia, India and China and it is the shortest day of the year while it is summer time in Australia, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa and it is the longest day of the year.

To avoid any confusion Solstices are preferably referred to as June Solstice (Northern Solstice) and December Solstice (Southern Solstice). Summer Solstice is also known as Aestival Solstice.

In Hindu astrology, Summer Solstice is known as Tropical Dakshinayana. However, Sidereal Dakshinayana starts from Karka Sankranti - from this day onwards Asurakal starts which is not good to start auspicious work.


The equinox and solstice day 2020

The spring and autumn equinox is an astronomical phenomenon, in which the day is equal to the night, they mark the change of the seasons. We know that the spring and autumn equinox comes at a time when our Sun in its yearly movement through the ecliptic crosses the celestial equator. These points respectively - are in the constellations of Pisces and Virgo. The vernal equinox day is the beginning of the astronomical spring.

In the days of the solstices, our daylight reaches the extreme points of its annual path across the sky - in summer it deviates 23.4 degrees north from the celestial equator, in winter 23.4 degrees south. Therefore, in June the Sun more illumines the northern hemisphere of the Earth - and at the time of the solstice here comes summer - and at the end of December - the southern, and we are at this time comes winter (and summer in the southern hemisphere).

Below you can see the exact dates of the spring and autumn equinoxes, just like the winter and summer solstices. City New York.

The equinox and solstice in 2020 year, the city New York
event date Time
Equinox spring19 march at 23:49 th
The summer solstice20 june at 17:43 sa
Equinox in the autumn22 september at 09:30 tu
Solstice Winter21 december at 05:02 mo

These dates were among the most revered in the pre-Christian period. Sunspot, curl, equinox, solstice - names of sunny holidays, which are also called the four hypostases of the Slavic Dazhdbog, which is the Sun itself - the son of Svarog.

- Christmas carol - winter solstice (December 21-22)
- Maslenitsa or Komodetsy - the day of the vernal equinox (March 21-22)
- Kupailo (Kupala) - summer solstice (June 21-22)
- Radogoshch (Svetovit, Veresen, Tausen) - the autumn equinox (September 22-23)

Kolyada is a winter solstice or the longest night of the year. During this period, the young sun Carol replaces the old-sunshine Svetovita. Therefore, the light time of the day starts to increase from this day. Changed the church for Christmas Christ.

Maslenitsa or Komodetsy - the day of the vernal equinox (day and night are equal in time), farewell to winter, the burning of the effigy of Marena, the meeting of spring and the Slavic New Year. The date of March 21-22 is also the beginning of the astronomical spring. The day from this day is longer than the night. Yarilo-Sun replaces Kolyada and chases Winter-Maren. Traditionally, this mass was celebrated for two weeks.

Kupailo is the summer solstice. The longest day and the shortest night of the year. The last day of the Mermaid Week or the Rusal. Kupala is one of the oldest holidays, which has preserved many traditions and customs unchanged up to our days, for example: the funeral of Yarila, which is replaced by the God of the summer sun Kupala, the collection of medicinal herbs, the search for a flower of a fern, etc. Kupailo is also a great holiday, which is now replaced by the church on the birthday of John the Baptist.

Radogocsch (Svetovit, Veresen, Tausen) is the day of the autumnal equinox (day and night are equal in time). On this day the Sun-Old Man Svetovit comes into the law. The night is longer than the day. It is both a sunny holiday and a harvest harvesting holiday. It was replaced by the church for the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.


The equinox and solstice day 2020

The spring and autumn equinox is an astronomical phenomenon, in which the day is equal to the night, they mark the change of the seasons. We know that the spring and autumn equinox comes at a time when our Sun in its yearly movement through the ecliptic crosses the celestial equator. These points respectively - are in the constellations of Pisces and Virgo. The vernal equinox day is the beginning of the astronomical spring.

In the days of the solstices, our daylight reaches the extreme points of its annual path across the sky - in summer it deviates 23.4 degrees north from the celestial equator, in winter 23.4 degrees south. Therefore, in June the Sun more illumines the northern hemisphere of the Earth - and at the time of the solstice here comes summer - and at the end of December - the southern, and we are at this time comes winter (and summer in the southern hemisphere).

Below you can see the exact dates of the spring and autumn equinoxes, just like the winter and summer solstices. City Sydney.

The equinox and solstice in 2020 year, the city Sydney
event date Time
Equinox spring20 march at 14:49 fr
The summer solstice21 june at 07:43 su
Equinox in the autumn22 september at 23:30 tu
Solstice Winter21 december at 21:02 mo

These dates were among the most revered in the pre-Christian period. Sunspot, curl, equinox, solstice - names of sunny holidays, which are also called the four hypostases of the Slavic Dazhdbog, which is the Sun itself - the son of Svarog.

- Christmas carol - winter solstice (December 21-22)
- Maslenitsa or Komodetsy - the day of the vernal equinox (March 21-22)
- Kupailo (Kupala) - summer solstice (June 21-22)
- Radogoshch (Svetovit, Veresen, Tausen) - the autumn equinox (September 22-23)

Kolyada is a winter solstice or the longest night of the year. During this period, the young sun Carol replaces the old-sunshine Svetovita. Therefore, the light time of the day starts to increase from this day. Changed the church for Christmas Christ.

Maslenitsa or Komodetsy - the day of the vernal equinox (day and night are equal in time), farewell to winter, the burning of the effigy of Marena, the meeting of spring and the Slavic New Year. The date of March 21-22 is also the beginning of the astronomical spring. The day from this day is longer than the night. Yarilo-Sun replaces Kolyada and chases Winter-Maren. Traditionally, this mass was celebrated for two weeks.

Kupailo is the summer solstice. The longest day and the shortest night of the year. The last day of the Mermaid Week or the Rusal. Kupala is one of the oldest holidays, which has preserved many traditions and customs unchanged up to our days, for example: the funeral of Yarila, which is replaced by the God of the summer sun Kupala, the collection of medicinal herbs, the search for a flower of a fern, etc. Kupailo is also a great holiday, which is now replaced by the church on the birthday of John the Baptist.

Radogocsch (Svetovit, Veresen, Tausen) is the day of the autumnal equinox (day and night are equal in time). On this day the Sun-Old Man Svetovit comes into the law. The night is longer than the day. It is both a sunny holiday and a harvest harvesting holiday. It was replaced by the church for the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.


Why do people visit Stonehenge for the summer solstice?

Though it’s not possible that the Druids built Stonehenge, the connection hasn’t been lost. “Modern-day Pagan and Druid groups believe it is their temple and it is their right to worship there, so [coming to Stonehenge is] the equivalent for them of coming to a church or cathedral,” Sebire says.

Still, Stukeley was the first to solidly theorize Stonehenge’s relationship to the solstices in writing. “It was probably known about before his time, but the literature is rather sparse until the mid-18th century,” according to Darvill.

The most important work on Stonehenge before Stukeley had been from John Aubrey, who discovered the monument in the 17th century &mdash naming the ring of pits that were dug for the early burial sites the Aubrey holes.

Clearly, the mystique of Stonehenge lives on today. Sebire says that part of its its appeal to visitors is the fact that the 56 Aubrey holes, where people were buried in cremation ceremonies, are still there.

Knowing that the winter solstice was likely more important, it’s curious that thousands continue to gather at Stonehenge for the summer solstice, and that much fewer people visit in the wintertime. One explanation is simple: the weather. December in the U.K. is nothing short of frigid, and visitors in the summer often have picnics and enjoy concerts, according to Sebire. “In these days of global tourism, it’s on a lot of people’s lists to visit Stonehenge, and some people want to do that in the solstice,” Sebire says.

Whatever the true story of this monument is, anyone can enjoy the breathtaking sunrise at the solstice. “We can put ourselves as nearly as possible in the shoes of prehistoric people, which is a phenomenal experience,” Darvill says.